What is a hose
Hose is a kind of tubular rubber products used to transport gas, liquid, slurry or granular materials. It consists of inner and outer rubber layer and skeleton layer. The material of the skeleton layer can be cotton fiber, various synthetic fibers, carbon fiber or asbestos, steel wire, etc. The inner and outer rubber layers of general hoses are made of natural rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber or butadiene rubber; oil-resistant hoses are made of neoprene and nitrile rubber; acid and alkali resistant, and high-temperature resistant hoses are made of ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorine rubber, or silicone rubber. In recent years, thermoplastic rubbers such as thermoplastic polyurethane rubber and polyester rubber have begun to be used. Hose is easy to bend, can buffer, light weight and easy to install and use. It has a wide range of uses, such as agricultural irrigation and drainage of farmland, harbour dredging and drainage of mud, hydraulic systems and pneumatic systems in aircraft, tanks, automobiles and many mechanical equipment. Many fuel hoses are used in fuel systems.
The inner rubber layer of the hose directly bears the abrasion and erosion of the conveyed medium and prevents its leakage; the outer rubber layer protects the skeleton layer from external damage and erosion; the skeleton layer is the pressure-bearing layer of the hose, which gives the pipe body strength and stiffness. The working pressure of the hose depends on the material and structure of the skeleton layer. According to the material and structure of the framework layer, the hose can be divided into all-plastic hose (non-fabric material sandwich cloth hose), suction hose (there is a layer of metal spirals outside the cloth layer), braided hose (the framework layer is woven steel wire or fabric) Winding hose (framework layer is steel wire or wire rope winding layer), knitted hose (framework layer is knitted fabric), short fiber hose (short fiber and rubber blended and pressed). The suction hose works under negative pressure, and the steel wire braided hose or wound hose can withstand 80 ~ 600MPa or even higher pressure.
The basic process of hose production is compounding rubber processing, cord and canvas processing, hose molding, vulcanization, etc. With different structures and different skeletons, the processing method of the skeleton layer and the equipment for forming the hose are different. The full rubber hose does not have a skeleton layer, so you only need to use an extruder to extrude the hose. The cloth clamping hose needs a molding machine that can cover the rubber tape on the inner rubber layer. The suction hose needs to be wound with a metal spiral first. Back pack inner rubber; weaving and winding hoses need to use a special fabric weaving machine or winding machine; knitted hoses need to use a knitting machine, etc.
Hose forming methods can be divided into core method (including soft core method and hard core method) and coreless method according to whether the core is used or not. The cored method means that the rubber tube is formed on a hard core or a soft core. The coreless method is to form the skeleton layer and the outer rubber layer directly on the extruded inner rubber tube. In order to ensure that the hose is under pressure during the vulcanization process, the hose is wrapped with a cloth, rope or lead after molding, and then vulcanized. Vulcanization can use direct steam heating or continuous vulcanization. The short fiber hose is directly added into the rubber material, and then extruded. The production process is simple, and it will gradually replace knitted rubber hoses and fabric hoses. Modern hose production technology tends to be highly continuous and automated. The use of thermoplastic rubber or plastic can eliminate the vulcanization process and greatly simplify the production process.
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